|Posted by Steroids on October 2, 2021 at 9:25 PM||comments (3111)|
In almost all vertebrates, testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid . This means it's a substance that helps to develop and maintain male characteristics. Testosterone affects behavior as well as maintaining bone density, fat distribution , muscle strength, red blood cell production , sex drive * , sperm production , and general energy levels.
When our bodies are preparing to go into battle or defending themselves from predators (or natural disasters), our bodies release testosterone (and other hormones) to ready us for what's ahead. It releases fatty acids into the blood stream for quick access as energy later on during the "fight" or "flight." The actual tingly feeling you get when scared is your body releasing adrenaline which increases heart rate . Fun fact: This is part of how animals sense danger, a slowed digestive system which conserves energy for later.
In humans, testosterone levels go up and down depending on the situation at hand. Testosterone is associated with dominance , ambition , aggression , and sexual desire . Many criminals have been found to have lower-than-normal testosterone levels. On the other hand, sportsmen/women or those who are especially competitive tend to have higher levels of cortisol (an antagonist of testosterone) but higher levels of testosterone as well. Suppression of testosterone production is one reason why steroid use among professional athletes can be so dangerous-- not only does it hit your body hard when you do decide to taking them, they've also suppressed their own production of testosterone which causes their bodies to "try" to compensate. This leads to decreased sperm counts , testicular shrinkage, and an increase in estrogen (both sexes naturally produce this hormone).
Testosterone levels peak between the ages of 30-34 for men. On average, males produce 6-8mg/day while females produce 0.5-2mg/day. Production starts decreasing around age 40 where it's estimated that 5% of males experience low T ( hypogonadism ). After the age of 60, less than 1% suffer from this condition.
Testosterone replacement therapy began in the 1930s when scientists found they could replace or mimic testosterone with other substances such as methyltestosterone (which would only be used until the 70s when it was found to be carcinogenic, or cancer-causing). Testosterone gels were introduced in 2000 and proved to be an effective treatment for hypogonadism. A more recent development is testosterone implants (which are covered by insurance but not all plans), which last up to six months depending on implant size.
What about those who don't suffer from low T? Will taking extra testosterone help them excel at their goals? The answer is simply, no. It will most likely damage your body's ability to produce natural testosterone . This means you're stuck wondering why you can't get strong/bigger no matter how much work you put in at the gym. Steroid use is very dangerous when it's taken with no medical supervision (and even if prescribed, follow dosage precautions!). If you're worried that your levels are low , get them tested through your doctor.
The most common uses of testosterone are in transgender therapy or anti-aging medicine. When treating the latter , they prescribe small doses to keep people healthier for longer (not bigger/stronger). It is also used illegally in sports in order to enhance performance but this has been banned in professional sports since 2004 . If you want more information about why athletes take steroids, check out our article series called 'The Athlete's Mind'.
|Posted by Steroids on October 2, 2021 at 9:15 PM||comments (105)|
Clenbuterol Hydrochloride is a beta-2 agonist used in the treatment of asthma and other respiratory illnesses. It works by relaxing the smooth muscles of the airways to provide relief from asthma, bronchitis, and emphysema.
Some body builders use this drug as a steroid alternative or as a "bridge" between cycles. While it does have some anabolic qualities, it's not typically used for that purpose because there are steroids that do not cause water retention which will provide more pronounced mass increases on cycle.
The interesting relationship with clenbuterol and bodybuilders is with its ability to help them lose body fat while retaining lean muscle tissue. In fact, many competitive natural bodybuilders include clenbuterol in their contest preparation plans.
The most notable benefit that an asthmatic can experience from clenbuterol is the increased ability to breathe more deeply and fully. This in itself can mean a lot in terms of quality of life because it's harder to enjoy physical activities when you're struggling just to take a breath every once in awhile. One problem with asthma prescriptions, though, is that they are so often used as "just in case" medicines instead of being taken daily when needed.
Another benefit for non-asthmatics using clen is the appetite suppression effect. Many people claim they don't even notice it but if you find yourself snacking less between regular meals then it might be affecting you too. It's an extremely common "side effect" of clenbuterol use.
Muscle preservation is another benefit that you don't typically find in most asthma medications and is often the reason that bodybuilders choose to take it in between cycles. By taking clenbuterol, they can burn fat more easily while retaining muscle mass instead burning muscle tissue when dieting. This is especially helpful for those who are following a calorie-restricted diet and also trying to enhance their physical performance with intensive weight training or cardio workouts.
HGH release is actually one of the ways that clenbuterol works with helping users lose excess body fat. Since an increase in GH results in lipolysis (fat) and decreased fat storage, the drug is also considered a metabolic enhancer.
As with most anabolic and thermogenic steroids, clenbuterol is incredibly effective for muscle-building purposes when used in the off-season. The anabolic effects are synergistic to other steroids which can increase testosterone levels while preventing catabolism at the same time. This means that you will recover faster between workouts, experience less muscle soreness, cut down on recovery time between your training sessions, and generally be able to train harder and more often.
Clenbuterol helps bodybuilders make lean gains by increasing their definition because it keeps them dryer while retaining water-soluble nutrients inside their muscles instead of under the skin or in their bloodstream. This allows users to compete at a much lower body fat percentage without losing muscle size.
Many people experience unpleasant side effects when they take clenbuterol or most other asthma medications, but they are most frequently associated with overuse instead of the normal therapeutic dosages being taken for their intended purposes.
One very common problem is nausea which can be caused by the medication itself or the blood pressure changes that accompany it. Other side effects include insomnia, headaches, tremors, irregular heartbeats, high or low blood pressure, and restlessness. These symptoms usually subside after being on the drug for 2-3 weeks though this varies between users. There are some precautions you should take too before trying clenbuterol or any beta agonist for that matter.
Although clenbuterol has proven to be extremely safe when used properly, there are some contraindications that should be taken into consideration before using it. Pregnant women and children under 18 should not use the medication because it can lead to stunted growth in adolescents and birth defects in infants. If you have cardiovascular problems or heart disease then you should not take clenbuterol either because it can make these conditions much worse. People with low blood pressure must also be careful since beta agonists like clenbuterol will raise your blood pressure even further, which could be dangerous if already at a low level.
If you're interested in trying out clenbuterol for yourself, you need to also understand that it stays in your system for approximately 2 days. This means you'll need to schedule your cycles accordingly so that the positive effects will be present at the time of your event, whether it's a competition or simply an important date like an anniversary or birthday. Clenbuterol is legal to obtain without any prescriptions but has not yet been approved for human use by the FDA though it can legally be prescribed as asthma treatment in some countries.
The majority of clenbuterol users take between 20-120 mcg per day, depending on their goals and what other medications they are taking concurrently (since there could be synergistic effects). Lower doses should only be taken every other day while higher ones may require daily dosing.
Users have reported very little if any side effects when using the therapeutic dosage of 20 mcg per day for no longer than 3 weeks, but this is taking clenbuterol alone, not in combination with other medications. To avoid dealing with the aforementioned problems, most people are advised to start off at 40 mcg per day for 2-3 days then taper down to 20 mcg every other day. This way your body has time to adapt to the medication and minimize potential side effects. If you experience none whatsoever during this initial period then you can increase your dose or take it daily since chances are good that it will run smoothly.
For the purposes of fat-loss clenbuterol use can be initiated at a daily dosage of 40 mcg and continued for 2-3 weeks. At the conclusion of this time you will most likely be in great shape but if not, give yourself another week or two at the maximum before taking a break from using clenbuterol altogether. You can begin taking it again anytime within the next 4-6 months and continue your cycle uninterrupted since clenbuterol has such a short half-life.
As we noted earlier, for mass promotion purposes many people decide to stack their medications with other compounds so there is no reason why clenbuterol cannot be combined as well, though you should know that it is one of those drugs that does not need to be stacked. In fact combining it with other substances could do more harm than good and you'd be best advised to use clenbuterol on its own during the 12-week period.
Clenbuterol also has a significant impact on your metabolic rate and it increases the amounts of both free and bound thyroid hormones in your body, which stimulate metabolism. This is why people who engage in prolonged cycles of clenbuterol often report an increase in appetite (due to the higher metabolic demand) as well as increased energy levels throughout the day. The reason for this is that by raising T3 levels you increase oxygen consumption by tissues, organs, and muscles since they all require oxygen to burn fuel (calories). Not only will your body's resting metabolism be raised but so too will its overall activity level.
Doing cardio on clenbuterol is much easier since you will be able to exercise longer due to the added oxygen in your bloodstream and this benefit alone can lead to an improved cardiovascular system over time.
While clenbuterol is excellent for fat-loss these results are not permanent, which means that if stopped suddenly your muscles will begin storing fat again at their regular pace. Even worse, several studies have shown that continuous use of beta 2 stimulants leads to down regulation of beta receptors in skeletal muscle tissue (reducing the effectiveness of future doses) as well as adrenergic receptor mutations after only 3 weeks! This is why it's crucial for users never take clenbuterol continuously or for extended periods of time. Abruptly discontinuing its use will also lead to a rapid loss of all fat-loss benefits, possibly even faster than they were accrued.
Therefore it is recommended that clenbuterol cycles never exceed 4-6 weeks in length and for this reason you should make sure you take a 4 week break before using it again (or else suffer the consequences). However, if you must engage in an 8-12 week cycle make sure to take at least a 12 week break beforehand; otherwise your results will be greatly diminished.
Clenbuterol stacks extremely well with other fat burners like cytomel/T3 or ephedrine hydrochloride since these agents promote thermogenesis without significantly augmenting the stimulant effects of clenbuterol. In fact, most bodybuilders prefer using cytomel rather than ephedrine since it is easier on the heart and doesn't lead to a rapid increase in blood pressure.
For women, who may be very hesitant about using clenbuterol for fear of virilization symptoms (i.e., deepening voice, clitoral enlargement, etc.), can rest assured that such side-effects are extremely rare and when they do occur they only become apparent when doses exceed 240 mcg per day over prolonged periods of time (6-12 weeks). Since experienced female users take no more than 120 mcg daily and cycle for only 4-6 weeks at a time their chances of developing any virilization symptoms are minimal. However, if a woman does experience any type of adverse reaction she should discontinue clenbuterol immediately to avoid further complications from occurring.
Clenbuterol is not only popular among athletes and bodybuilders for fat loss but also as a performance enhancer that can increase sprinting ability as well as aerobic capacity. In fact, the 2008 Jamaican track team was kicked out of the Olympics after their sprinters tested positive for this drug. Therefore, before you take any form of clenbuterol think twice about whether it's worth potentially being thrown out of your sport or losing a career opportunity because you made a poor decision!
Another reason why many athletes love clenbuterol is due to its ability to dramatically reduce recovery time between training sessions, which is beneficial in the off-season when you are trying to pack on muscle mass. As opposed to most other fat burners this drug does not suppress appetite either so the risk of developing an eating disorder is much lower when using clenbuterol compared with something like ephedrine.
Additional benefits of taking clenbuterol include: Decreased blood pressure Increased red blood cell count Higher body temperature Reduction in LDL cholesterol levels Quicker recovery from fatigue/exhaustion Promotion of lipolysis (the breaking down of stored triglyceride fats into free fatty acids for energy) No reported side effects or potential long-term damage to health due to use.
|Posted by Steroids on October 2, 2021 at 9:10 PM||comments (0)|
HGH is a naturally occurring peptide hormone that boosts growth in humans. This hormone has also been used to enhance the performance of athletes and combat aging.
HGH (Human Growth Hormone) was introduced into clinical practice in 1981, after experiments by Dr Daniel Rudman showed that injections of the hormone were capable of reversing many of the symptoms associated with adult-onset growth hormone deficiency (AO-GHD).
Within 6 months, significant results were reported by several independent investigators throughout America and Europe. These included increased energy levels, enhanced lean body mass, decreased fat mass, improved skin tone, elevated cognitive function (particularly in the elderly), reduced cholesterol levels , improved muscle strength/mobility in the young… in addition to decreased bone loss, improved healing times (wound/fracture) and increased hair growth.
Although most clinical studies on the benefits of HGH therapy have been conducted in adults, evidence is emerging that shows similar results in children with AO-GHD, Turner's syndrome (TS), chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) and Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS).
The use of HGH has frequently been described as "controversial". This contention has largely resulted from media coverage of athletes taking performance-enhancing drugs such as human growth hormone to gain a competitive edge over their peers. In addition to anabolic agents, many expert sports physicians have experimented with other ergogenic aids such testosterone and erythropoietin (EPO). The use of such drugs by high-profile athletes has brought drug-taking to the forefront of public debate.
The anti-doping laws implemented by international sport federations reflects society's attitude towards the use of HGH. This is clearly demonstrated in a statement made by former WADA president Dick Pound: "It would be widely accepted that using human growth hormone as an athletic performance enhancer is cheating, just as it would be widely accepted that taking anabolic steroids or EPO is cheating."
Clearly, from a legal standpoint HGH usage is problematic and governing bodies have been active in their pursuit to prevent its misuse. In 1990, professional baseball player Rick Collins was suspended for 50 games after testing positive for the misuse of human growth hormone. In 1998, Canadian ice-hockey player Chris Benoit was suspended from the National Hockey League (NHL) for failing a blood test which detected high levels of HGH in his system after a game against the Detroit Red Wings.
More recently in 2007, American sprinter Justin Gatlin and Russian tennis star Marat Safin were banned following positive drug tests for excessive amounts of male hormones (androgens). These athletes received 2-year suspensions from their respective governing bodies, although both maintained that they had not intentionally taken any performance enhancing drugs.
In June 2008, Spanish cyclist Alberto Contador was suspended from competing in cycling races by the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI), who claimed that he tested positive for excessive levels of HGH after placing first in the 2007 edition of the Tour de France. Contador maintained that he was innocent and challenged his suspension by appealing to the Court of Arbitration for Sports (CAS). The hearing found in his favour, but this decision was later overturned by CAS who reinstated Contador's ban for 2 years.
As with all areas of drug testing, doping regulations are constantly evolving to reflect society's views on what constitutes acceptable behaviour within competitive sport. The definition of "enhancing performance" is not limited to anabolic agents or EPO - it includes any substance that may unfairly enhance sports performance. As a result, governing bodies have tightened anti-doping regulations since 2003 when they removed social drugs from testing schedules.
Social drugs such as cannabis and cocaine were removed from the list of prohibited substances by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) after researchers found that these drugs did not contribute to enhanced sporting performance. However, their removal does not mean that athletes are free to take such drugs at will – possession or use can still lead to sanctions if found in an athlete's system during a doping test.
In the 2008 Prohibited List published by WADA (and used by all major sports bodies), HGH is listed as a "metabolic modulator" and its usage is prohibited both in and out of competition – for example, before and after surgery. Although this regulation has been subject to much controversy regarding its inclusion on the list, it is clear that the practice of HGH misuse in sport is considered unacceptable by both national and international anti-doping agencies.
However, this does not mean that it has been eradicated from competitive sports. Scientists have estimated over 30% of athletes at Olympic Games have used growth hormone in an attempt to enhance performance. Recently, scientists assessing blood samples at the 2008 Beijing Olympics reported a high prevalence of abnormal forms of HGH, which may indicate illicit usage amongst athletes. The researchers suggest that "the biological passport" method should be introduced at future Olympics to monitor individual's normal levels of these substances.
One of the greatest concerns surrounding HGH abuse is its potential for illicit use as a doping agent among children and adolescents who participate in sport. By inhibiting the natural production of growth hormone, HGH can provide considerable advantage to growing athletes. However, concerns regarding adverse effects are now supported by studies that have shown an association between chronic misuse of HGH and increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in adults who used this drug during childhood or adolescence.
This risk is exacerbated by the evidence that shows illicit usage of GH amongst young people is widespread, particularly in non-endemic regions such as Europe and North America. Reasons for why children choose to use HGH are multifactorial but may include encouragement from coaches or parents who believe it will improve their sports performance.
HGH has also been detected in products marketed as dietary supplements for bodybuilding purposes. This finding emphasises the need for improved regulation of HGH, particularly within dietary supplements. However, the process is complicated by the lack of an international standard for testing and detection methods.
Since illicit usage of GH has continued despite strict anti-doping regulations, many sports scientists are now turning their attention to developing GH misuse deterrents that could be introduced into sport. One promising candidate is huperzine A (Hup A), which inhibits acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity to increase levels of acetylcholine (Ach). Acetylcholine binds with receptors on cell membranes in muscle tissues and stimulates growth hormone release. Therefore, theoretically, giving athletes Hup A will reduce any advantage gained through increased levels of growth hormone release.
Currently, the only way to detect HGH misuse is through blood testing. However, there are no agreed-upon levels that will act as a deterrent for GH abuse. This situation exists because it is currently impossible to distinguish between endogenous (naturally produced) and exogenous (drug-induced) sources of GH in the circulation. Therefore, anti-doping agencies cannot establish what levels of HGH would normally be found in an athlete's body – natural or drug induced. Recently developed urine tests appear more promising but still need further investigation regarding their specificity and sensitivity before they can be used reliably by sports bodies.
Numerous studies have now shown that regular exercise can promote increased muscle mass and strength gains, enhance fat metabolism, promote physical and psychological health, and improve insulin sensitivity. Therefore, there are strong arguments for encouraging children to engage in regular exercise at school as part of their normal daily activities. There is no need to integrate formalised sports training into the school timetable, but instead it should be viewed as an integral component of a child's development, with some time allocated each day for spontaneous playtime activity.
One surprising outcome from the study showed that although HGH produced by injecting GH had positive effects on apparent muscle strength (one-repetition maximum), the orally administered form was not effective. This outcome probably reflects first pass metabolism effect after oral ingestion rather than lack of efficacy per se . Therefore, further research is to develop non-injectable GH formulations may be needed.
A recent study has shown that huperzine A (Hup A) could be an effective deterrent against the abuse of growth hormone by athletes. Hup A is a naturally occurring compound derived from the Chinese club moss Huperzia serrata . It acts as a reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor to prolong the action of endogenous Ach at cholinergic receptors in peripheral tissues, including skeletal muscles. This results in increased binding between Ach and its receptors , which stimulates secretion of growth hormone. By inhibiting this enzyme, Hup A can reduce normal levels of growth hormone release after physical exercise . However, it may have additional effects on GH secretion by altering somatostatin neuronal activity or stimulating the release of GHRH from the hypothalamus.
In a recent study , researchers randomly divided 22 adult male cyclists into two groups, before giving them either Hup A or a placebo for four weeks. After that three week period, all subjects were given GH as well as Hup A or a placebo for another four weeks. During this time they took part in an exercise test to determine their maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max), maximum power output and maximum workloads during graded cycling tests. The results showed that maximal VO2 max was significantly higher in those who had received Hup A supplementation compared with those given a placebo – indicating increased aerobic fitness . In addition, at maximal power output and maximal workloads, those who had been given Hup A were able to generate significantly more power compared with those who had received the placebo. This suggests that Hup A supplementation may increase anaerobic capacity .
Finally, some evidence emerged for benefits of Hup A in attenuating increases in cortisol, blood lactate and catecholamines following exercise. Therefore, it is possible that this supplement could also act as an anti-catabolic agent during heavy training regimes. The results of this study suggest that Hup A has high potential as a GH secretagogue , but only future research will provide any definitive conclusions regarding its effectiveness in human subjects.